Tag: instructional designing

21 May 2021
instructional designing

What learning theories are important for instructional designing?

Instructional designing as an industry has boomed up.

But there are problems involved when the module is not designed as per the requirements of the target audience. So for any booming instructional designer, it’s important to understand that he can gain knowledge about such principles to improve the quality of his work.

Any instructional designer should follow the following practices. They can make sure he gets the best out of his elearning design. Experts might know the subject matter but they might not know how to make students learn through their material. So, apart from following the below-listed practices, they can also combine their business objectives and what students/learners require. Then they can come up with some solid elearning matter.

Behaviourism

This theory has the presumption that human behaviour starts repeating itself after some time under the influence of their external environment. So they can be taught to repeat some practices by making them do it again. This theory has some loopholes like what is the thought process of a student i.e. what he thinks of the knowledge given to him. This theory assumes what are the requirements of students, so, it gives students evidence of some knowledge, and makes them retain it.

This theory is all about skill formation.

Cognitivism

This theory makes sure that the users can understand what is taught to them. This way, this theory focuses on students learning methods. Therefore, this theory focuses on critical thinking and idea development. This theory tries to go into depth into the perspective of a student how he absorbs the information.

The theory focuses on why the learners’ ways of working are changing and how their thinking is influencing it.

But, this does not mean that instructional designers should ignore behaviorism. The instructional designers can only choose the right theory when the following factors are considered.

The instructional designers can only use the cognitive approach, when they should check out the following things

  1. Make sure that you know learning techniques that are used by students. The students use techniques to link data given to them with what they already know. These kinds of techniques are important when you have to decide how the information should be presented to them.
  2. Make sure that the attributes of a student are positive to his understanding of the information. These factors may not be favourable to his cognitive abilities, i.e. how much he comprehends the information.

Constructivism

This is an important theory that says that students gain knowledge because of what they experience and believe in. So, students are important in this learning theory also. The students gain knowledge depending on what is taught to them and on what they encounter. This means you can’t just make students learn by telling them something, they need some experiences also.

So, based on these learning theories the instructional designers can come with some excellent elearning material.

 

 

 

14 May 2021
instructional designing

How instructional designing is supporting technological advancement?

Instructional designing has become so relevant in today’s times when the learners don’t want to venture outside their houses.

The job of an instructional designer is to create the perfect elearning material as per the requirements of the learners. Learners have so many tools available before them, today, like YouTube videos, social media and online articles.

This massive advent of resources has been possible due to the technological development faced by the world i.e. coming up of search engines. There has been a great use of portals by people to get information. There is no need for memorization of knowledge because it is all available online, and the best part is that it can be accessed on a Smartphone which can be carried anywhere. Earlier, communication with someone to grab information about some topic used to take so much time, but now this is no longer the case when there are websites and forums related to specific topics.

There is a shift in the mindset of learners also who want knowledge to be supplied to them when they require it urgently. The workplace has now shifted to a digital mode where instructional designing is used to create new forms of elearning. The remote working employees need materials regularly about compliance training and product innovations. Therefore there need to be big changes in the instructional designing methods to make employees satiated for their thirst for knowledge.

But when employees have such huge databases of knowledge before them, how should instructional designing choose for them.

Choosing what is important

The knowledge can’t be used for ambiguous purposes. It should have a specific purpose like how employees can fulfil the organizational goals with it.

Sending such knowledge

Knowledge distribution is also quite important because it should be accessible by employees at all points of time.

Evaluation

How can we ensure that our workforce has imbibed the knowledge it needs?

Instructional designing methods

There should be elaborate needs analysis done to make sure that the instructional designing material is in tandem. Hence the data to be used for the elearning experience should be seen through the perspective of needs analysis.

Instructional designing to developing employees

The needs analysis is concerned with fulfilling the performance gaps of employees. For example, the employee attrition rate could be more than required and in that case, the employers should focus on collecting data about what is lacking in training employees during employee onboarding.

Data should also be collected about the success of the training program devised later like whether the employees participated or not.
How to distribute data?
Once the data has been gathered about what should be included in elearning then the next area is how to disseminate the information. Every distribution method has its merits and demerits but a company should conduct due diligence before choosing one. For example, regular learning is more important than one-time sessions. When employees learn continuously, their learning rate is more.

Role of analytics in instructional designing

Analytics are quite important for employees because they can make sure that the learners get good amounts of support in terms of knowledge transfer. The newly-hired employees may be deteriorating in their work because of a lack of skills. Hence there should be timely online training given to them through proper instructional designing methods. The resources at the workplace should also be accessible to them and they should be built continuously by the content creators of the company. There should be effective support given to a newbie who should be able to give his best because of newly acquired knowledge.

So, this is how instructional designing can supplement technological advances which have led to easy access to knowledge for so many employees.

20 Jan 2021
instructional designing

What are the modern instructional designing models?

Creating an online course is quite tough. It’s important to consider technology with what students require.

Instructional designing has seen a lot of changes in the past.

In the 19th century, education was used as a form of instruction, but in the 20th century, there were changes in education. The focus of education now became a student. 

In 1990, when IT getting started included in education, there was the inclusion of a student-centred approach. 

There was the beginning of the role of the instructional designer during that time. In 2000, this was the emergence of a designer that could mix the cognitive psychology of the students with the models of instructional design and technology. These instructional designing models were Bloom’s taxonomy etc. 

There has been the adoption of the elearning model which is used throughout startups, schools and universities. Let’s discuss the ID models and what impact do they have on this field. 

Dick and Carey 

This is a traditional model which does not take into account the student. However, the performance objectives are only established after taking into account what a student wants. This model also does not take stock of Information and computer technology. It has a tough structure and cant be adopted beyond the academic context. For example, it can’t be used in startups, that want elearning for their company to grow further. 

The model has the following stages:

  • Recognise instructional goals-Do instructional analysis-Change instruction 
  • Note down performance objectives
  • Write down the criterion for the referenced test
  • Create an instruction strategy
  • Create and choose instructional materials 
  • Create and do a formative evaluation 
  • Create and do a summative evaluation 
  • Recognise entry behaviours 
  • Jot down performance objectives again 

 
ASSURE 

Assure is also another model which has been gaining popularity recently. The model is linear. It does not take into account the changes in technology to build student instruction. The feedback from the users is taken after some time instead of initially taking it from them. It should be taken at an initial stage of the process. It’s because sometimes the last stage of taking feedback and changing the process is not sufficient. In a digital environment change, has to be accepted from the beginning. 

ASSURE stands for analyse learners, then stating objectives, then choosing(selecting) materials and media, then making use of(utilizing) media and materials and needing(requiring) learner participation and check(evaluate) and revise

EXD 

EXD is also a new model to develop instructional designing. This model is of high use in sectors that require lesser use of time and cost in developing the course. 

EXD model also takes place iterations. This model stands for empathising, define, select, create, deliver and measure

Empathise 

Empathise stands for understanding what the users need. The learning designers can take interviews of the users, create a problem statement and recognise what the users need to learn i.e. the learning gap. 

Define

Whatever user needs have been recognised in the Empathise phase, courses are chosen to fulfil the learning gap. Then topic ideas are taken from such courses and learning objectives are defined. 

Select 

This phase includes the right technology to provide teaching and learning. 

Create 

Digital resources are created with the technology chosen in the earlier phase. This also includes taking into account the content of the course and the duration earlier defined. 

Launch

Make sure that the course is shown on an elearning resource to the target audience

Measure

Take the outcome of the learning experience i.e. the course. When the data is gathered, the changes will be done in the next cycle. However, the information is gathered in this manner. By taking the performance analytics of both the students and teachers on the elearning course. Taking polls of the users is also another way to collect information. Key performance indicators can also be used to measure the performance of the course. 

The iteration cycle does not start with the Empathise stage. It can be started with any phase as per the outcomes gained in the Measure phase. 

For example, the next cycle could start in the Select phase to change a specific concept of the format which is having effects on user experience. 

This is how some of the instructional designing models work now. 

 

16 Dec 2020
instructional designing

How can instructional designers design a course?

Instructional designing is a tough job.

The subject matter experts are there to guide instructional designers but often they want to provide all their information in the elearning module. Sometimes, this information is not relevant for the learners. So, how do instructional designers design the course? When the instructional designing course is long the learners are easily distracted. Even if they can complete the course, they don’t remember what they have seen. Instructional designers need to clear this gap between what subject matter experts know and how much information is needed by the employees.
Instructional designers can use a game-based model to solve the problem. 

Problem no. 1: Information flood
The entire information which SME’s think is needed by the employees is not needed in an elearning module. The human brain does not have such a high processing capability. It can only get 7 or just 9 items at a time. So, how to provide this required information to employees.

Solution: Games provide a priority to knowledge 
For instructional designing, you have to check the knowledge base of employees by giving them games. With games, employees have a new perspective. The employees start looking at content differently. They start understanding what is important for the elearning module. From such games, you get complete information about important performance objectives, how to arrange topics that have important information and discover lacking steps.
Games make sure that employees can reminisce all the information which they don’t have.
Games also pose questions to employees. In a game, you can include upto 25 questions so that employees can go through fact-checking. These questions check the facts known by the learners in the form of relevant questions.
When the game is played many times, a sufficient amount of information is gathered about where employees are lacking in terms of knowledge both as individuals and groups.

Problem no. 2:No input from the learners 
Instructional designers don’t get time to interact with the employees about what information is needed by them for instructional designing. They have to rely on the instincts of the SME’s about what information is required by the learners. This is because instructional designers don’t have much time on their hands to interact with the learners.

Solution: Games make sure you talk with the learners 
Games can’t make sure that you get more time with learners. However, you can engage with employees in a better way through them.
Through a game, employees can be asked about what are the problems faced at work by them. They can also help in designing a learning game for other employees. This way, you get a big idea about the training needs and then you can work with subject matter experts to add more ideas.
You can create a storyboard and ensure that the employees can test the sample storyboard and provide you with feedback. This way, you can develop the best storyboard required for the employees.
Using games is quite important so that you can create a mindset and create a storyboard from the point of view of employees rather than sharing all the content in elearning suggested by SME’s. 

27 Nov 2020
New approaches to instructional designing

Emerging trends in instructional design

The instructional designing model is here to stay.

However, there are some trends that are going to be in vogue for the future in this industry.

The question before instructional designers: The vendors who are working in the market need to know whether the solution will find the right buyers. The instructional designing solution should have the right buyers. If someone else is able to develop a similar situation first, your instructional design might not find many takers. therefore, An analysis meeting is necessary before the instructional design is commenced.
However, in any organization, an instructional designing model can’t be the panacea for all problems. It means to plan the solution first for the problem faced in companies. This L & D problem needs to be tackled by an instructional designer. Once he has been in meetings with company employees as to what kind of training they need, he can then choose the technology required to meet it. The learning design models also need upliftment because the L&D market is expanding.

Revolution in learning needs: No company wants their best of talents to leave the job. That’s why the companies are investing in training. Therefore, the L&D market is redesigning the learning design. Exciting training videos are being produced. In fact, it’s the best time to be in the learning and development industry than ever before. The instructional designing models are getting used to provide a good experience to the learners. The exact focus is on the impact of these videos. Creativity is at the crux of these instructional designing videos so that learner engagement is the maximum.
Elearning videos now provide regular feedback to the learners and learner engagement is high. These videos are not just simply about providing instructions to the learners.

Resistance: A massive L&D development is happening as of now. So, there can be failures as well. It’s better to get back even after you have failed. So, for learning a new lesson, it’s important that you grasp something from experience. Adaptation is the base of this new learning design experience. That’s what; resistance is all about, that you never give up. There are changes happening in the instructional designing world. These changes could be in the form of augmented and virtual realities coming into the design. It’s better to predict changes and adapt, rather than not adapt at all.

Human-specific approach: Focus towards humans is very important and we need to understand that in an L&D design, there are no learners but humans. Therefore, an instructional design has to take care of humans. Therefore the application has to think like humans, who have to use the application. The instructional designing module should not be designed like someone from the IT department who will never use the application. In designing an application there must be the use of user experience and user interface. Hence there must be the right selection of fonts. The fonts and the layout form the User interface for the user. However, the user experience consists of how good you felt after reading a book. This depends on your needs and desires. The user interface is a part of user experience, but there are other elements to it such as motivation for the learner and game thinking. Game thinking is about how to resolve a problem with a good approach i.e. how to present the module to the learner that it solves his/her needs.

Hence, these are the upcoming trends in instructional design.

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DSLR stands for Digital single-lens reflex camera. It has a digital imaging sensor. In this kind of camera, the captured image can be viewed in the viewfinder when the shutter button is pressed. Its shown through the main lens rather than through a secondary lens, so the user knows what has been captured. 

He was a German psychologist who is known for discovering the forgetting curve. According to this curve, the biggest decline in memory happens within 20 minutes, and then 1 hour.